# Formulas and Functions in Excel

### Introduction

In your previous class, you have already learned that MS Excel is an electronic spreadsheet Excel files are known as workbooks, and each workbook contains one or more worksheets spreadsheets. Each worksheet has rows and columns and their intersections are called cell Data is organized in these cells and mathematical calculations are done on the data.

Excel calculations should start with a ’=’ sign, Excel has several built-in functions which help to perform calculations very quickly. It has special tools that help to arrange data as well as extract data as per the requirement.

### Working with Formulas

Formulas are mathematical expressions that perform calculations on a given set of values In Ex, we have formulas that apart from performing basic calculations like add, subtract, multi and divide can also help in performing complex calculations. Excel uses cell addresses to represent the cell value, also known as a cell reference. Let us see how to create formulas and use cell references.

We can use standard operators such as + for addition, – for subtraction, * for multiplication, / for division and, ^ for exponents.

All formulas have to begin with an equal sign (=). This means that what the cell contains is equal to the formula and its value.